GA LPC Requirements | 10 Tips: Former Board Chair


How to Become an LPC in Georgia

Georgia’s LPC licensing process can be confusing. You have likely encountered conflicting information on how to get licensed. I will simply it for you, yet provide enough detail so you can understand your unique situation.

Visit this page often because I update it as licensing news becomes available.

It is important to plan well in advance of submitting your licensing application. If you don’t meet proper exam, educational requirements, or supervised experience your application will be denied. If denied, in some cases it may not be practical to further pursue an LPC license in Georgia. So plan, plan, plan! Here’s a step-by-step guide:

Educational and Course Requirements

Degree Program Accreditation

Does Georgia’s Composite Board require you degree be CACREP accredited? No. The program may be accredited by either the Council on Higher Education Association (CHEA) the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) or Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs  (CACREP.)

Should I Plan For My Degree to Be CACREP Accredited

Still shopping for schools? If you have not yet selected your graduate degree, be safe and choose a CACREP accredited program. Georgia’s Licensing Board Requirements are overall becoming more stringent.

Since at least 2016, Georgia’s Composite Board has pondered the matter of accreditation. It is difficult to predict whether the board will change this rule. Interestingly, the two other licenses regulated by the composite board – social work and marriage and family therapy- are required by GA law to be specifically accredited. Such is not the case with professional counseling.

Acceptable Masters Degree Programs

*A minimum masters degree is required for state licensure. It is not possible to become licensed with a bachelors degree or less. With a state license you can start a private practice.*


Georgia’s Composite Board rules and law state that the program must be “primarily counseling in content”. Examples of acceptable degrees include Professional Counseling, Counseling and Clinical Mental Health Counseling.

An example of an unacceptable degree is Sociology. Whereas some of the courses may have a focus on social systems, the board does not consider this primarily counseling in content.

Good Reads: Can A School Counselor Become an LPC?

Applied Psychology

Board rules allow for individuals with psychology degrees to become licensed as LPCs. It must be a program in applied psychology. Degree titles vary, but programs in experimental or research psychology are not acceptable. In short, the program curricula courses must teach principles for delivering counseling and psychotherapy.

Rehabilitation Counseling

Georgia’s board licenses rehabilitation counselors as LPC’s (some states have Licensed Rehabilitation Counselors). An example of an acceptable degree is a Masters in Rehabilitation Counseling. In addition, you must also be a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC).

There are other differences in licensing requirements for Masters in Rehabilitation Counseling.

Other Levels of Degrees

Generally there are three levels of acceptable education: a masters, a doctorate or a specialist degree. For example a Education Specialist (EdS) degree is a three year program. The primary advantage to having a specialist or doctoral degree is the board requires fewer years of supervised experience.

Course Requirements

Now that you have reviewed your degree and accreditation, you must have also completed required courses. For example, if you have a Masters in Counseling that is CORE accredited, you’re good to go IF you meet the following.

Human Growth and Development

Multicultural Counseling or Diversity Training

Counseling Techniques or Skills

Group Dynamics and Group Counseling/Psychotherapy

Lifestyle and Career Development

Appraisal/Assessment of Individuals

Research Methods and Evaluation

Professional Orientation/ Ethics


Confirming Your Program Meets Board Course Requirements

With a copy of your transcript in front of you, review Composite Board Rules Chapter 135-5, Requirements for Licensure. The page will open in a new window. Enter your name and add the numbers in the box. The page below will open. Click on the highlighted link and locate detailed descriptions of the courses you are required to complete.  Regardless of your type of degree you must meet all of these course requirements. *Review carefully curricula for Rehabilitation Counseling. Some of these programs do not include all required courses.*

direct link to georgia requirements for LPC

This is a very important step so don’t skip it–compare the courses on your transcript to those in the board rule requirements. If the titles match, then you likely have met course requirements. Your appraisal/ assessment course may be a titled as a psychological testing course. Your research methods and evaluations might be titled as a statistics course.

Good Reads: The Art of Reading Board Rules

Courses Don’t Match Board Requirements

Some of your course titles may be different. Read the course descriptions in your school bulletin and retain a copy as this is primary source information for that course. The course bulletin is the university bible for purposes of accreditation. Be sure the instructional content matches board course requirements for LPC licensure. Selecting a CACREP accredited program in counseling will most likely require you to complete all courses required to meet Georgia LPC requirements.

Coursework may be completed during the program or after the degree was conferred. Some programs do not require a course in diagnosing. It is best to choose a program that offers all required courses. It can be difficult to piece together individual courses after graduation. Even worse, it is difficult if not impossible to find a practicum/internship that is not part of a degree program.

Post Masters Training Requirements

Main Components

There are two main components of LPC supervised experience in Georgia: Supervision and Directed Experience.

Directed Experience

Directed Experience is your job or employer. It is the time you spend in work as a professional counselor. It must include a formal structure. In short, it must have all the elements of employment. A boss, a company, policies and procedures, W-2 or 1099 compensation, hiring and termination.

Georgia’s Composite board scrutinizes work settings (many counselors were working in work settings that are private practice that provide little or no employer/employee oversight).

If you are considering accepting a job with questionable structure, the board considers these on a case by case basis (for example, you may be interested in obtaining your supervised experience at a small group practice of other licensed mental professionals). In all cases, you must document that someone will monitor your work and can terminate you.

This oversight means activities performed by a Director who meets specific requirements:


Essentially this is your boss and often the person directly above you in the chain of command. There are no education requirements. No degree, no diploma, nothing– it is the individual who has the authority to discipline, hire and fire you.

The only requirement is they understand and agree to –in writing– to support your pursuit of LPC licensure and provide oversight of the directed experience.


Supervision is defined as “…the direct clinical review for the purpose of training or teaching by a Supervisor of a Professional Counselor’s interaction with their clients.”. Supervision can be provided at the place of employment or off-site with a private Supervisor. It can be provided for a fee or for free. Supervision can be provided via distance technologies or face-to-face. Supervision may include but is not limited to case presentation, direct observation or reviewing the counselor’s clinical documentation.

Supervision are activities performed by another licensed mental health professional Supervisor who has specific qualifications:


An LPC Supervisor must be a licensed mental health professional in Georgia. Georgia’s licensing board accepts five types of state licensed mental health professionals:

• Psychiatrists- minimum requirement is state license to practice medicine

• Psychologists- minimum requirement is state license to practice psychology

• Professional Counselors- if Supervisor has a Masters degree, minimum 3 years licensed.

• Clinical Social Workers- if Supervisor has a Masters degree, minimum 3 years licensed.

• Marriage and Family Therapists- if Supervisor has a Masters degree, minimum 3 years licensed.

Year Requirements for Supervision and Directed Experience

What is a Year?

First, understand the basic definition of one year of post masters directed work experience under supervision. The number of years required depends on your degree level and whether you completed a practicum and internship in your program.

A year is 12 months. You can’t you rush the clock. For each month, you must be under supervision while in a board approved directed experience work setting. In other words, simultaneously. Work without supervision is not allowed and the board will disallow these months.  However, you have 20 months to obtain that one year. This allows for unforeseen lapses in employment.

During that 12-20 month year, you must obtain 1000 hours of work performing counseling and psychotherapy and 35 hours of Supervision. If you have a masters degree you must complete four years of Directed Experience under Supervision however an eligible internship equals one of those years.

Simply multiply the above definition by the number of years required for your license application. For example, two years is a minimum of 24 months but you have 40 months to meet that two year work setting requirement. And you need 70 hours of supervision. Same for three years and so on.

Minimum Two Years Supervision by LPC Supervisor

If you have a masters degree a minimum of two of the four years must be provided by an Eligible LPC Supervisor.

Eligible LPC Supervisors: Additional Requirements

In additional to the minimum three years post licensure requirement, LPC Supervisors in Georgia must hold one of the following supervision credentials:

• The Certified Professional Counselor Supervisor (CPCS). This credential is issued and maintained by the Licensed Professional Counselors Association of Georgia (LPCA)

• The Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) credential issued by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC).

The board processes out-of-state supervision and LPC reciprocity/transfer on a case by case basis.

A Practicum/Internship In Lieu of a Year

If you completed a 600 hour practicum and internship as part of your degree program, you only need 3 years of directed experience under supervision. If your practicum/internship supervisor was also an Eligible LPC Supervisor, then you will only need one additional year of LPC Supervision.

Another advantage of completing a 600 hour internship is that counts as one full year even though most internships are only 8-9 months in duration.

Summary: Important Hot Tips

Accumulation of Directed Experience

Ensure both directed experience and supervision hours are evenly distributed. The board may ask you to explain why you received ten hours of supervision over one month, then no supervision over the next three months.

The same applies to directed experience years. Spread them out. If you worked 2000 hours in year one and 300 hours in year two, the board may also question this.

Submitting a Killer LPC Application

Now that you understand Georgia’s LPC licensing requirements, learn how to submit a great application.

Ethics in LPC License Training and Supervision

Ethics Demystified: Ethics LPC License Training and Supervision

Ethics in Clinical Supervision

Ethics is the foundation of professional practice as well as LPC licensure training and supervision. Ethics isn’t a component of your practice: all aspects of your practice are based upon ethics. It is the cornerstone of the practice of psychotherapy. Your practice can’t survive if you don’t have a solid grasp of what is right and wrong. Morally, clinically and legally. Without that foundation, even the most sophisticated counseling skills are of little value.

None of us are automatically ‘ethical’. You must learn it from more experienced peers. Either through consultation or professional CEU workshops. In a broader sense, LPC licensure training and supervision involves getting a license, maintaining it, and receiving/giving help to our peers.

The state of the profession is determined by those it gives birth to.

In other words, experienced therapists have an obligation to nurture the growth of those new to the counseling profession. Good license hygiene requires a mastery of ethics.

This should start from the time we begin pursuing a license. It transcends professional identity or orientation: this guide applies to everyone licensed to practice psychotherapy including psychologists.


My decision to provide ethics training and supervision was based on my experience serving on the Composite Board of Professional Counselors, Social Workers and Marriage and Family Therapists.  Board members are appointed by the governor. I served for 7 years. When I departed, I wanted to share my experiences with peers. I knew I could have a positive impact on the profession. I felt a duty to share how the board evaluates ethics complaints.

Why ethics should be your top priority

Some of the most common ethical violations are found to be boundary crossings.

For therapists, the greatest job hazard is managing human contact. When our helping turns into rescuing, we have engaged in a boundary crossing. This type of boundary crossing is a common blind spot for new or inadequately trained therapists.

Sometimes therapists lack a capacity to see they have crossed a boundary. This is very concerning and it is compounded when their clinical supervisor doesn’t see it either.

Supervisors must be skilled not only in recognizing boundary crossings, but they must use those skills so together you can get your work back on track.

As you can see, you need a solid foundation in ethics in order to practice safely and fortify where you are most vulnerable. 

What is good license hygiene

Hi-giene (ˈhīˌjēn) noun: conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness. synonyms: cleanliness, sanitation, sterility, purity.

First, hygiene is prevention. As you proceed towards licensure, you should be proactive in ensuring a clean and unblemished license history. You accomplish this by incorporating a system for addressing areas where you need to strengthen your license.

There are 7 essential elements to gaining a solid grasp of ethics and good license hygiene.

7 essential elements of ethics and good license hygiene

Read the Composite Board Code of Ethics

Review the Composite Board Code of Ethics. Georgia professional counselors, social workers and marriage and family therapists are all bound by this same code. I cover it with participants line-by-line in my ethics workshop, Understanding the Composite Board Complaints and Investigations Process.

Supervision by a Well-Trained Supervisor

Having a state practice license is a serious matter.  Select your supervisor carefully. For example, if you are working with children, they need to have worked with children. They should state to you their approach to supervision.

Your supervisor should know the board rules and ethics. They need to stay on top of rule changes as well as board policies. They need to be competent in guiding you on ethical dilemmas.

There should be a ‘click’ between you. There is too much at stake to put your pursuit of licensure in the hands of someone you don’t fully trust. You are paying them for your service. They should work on your behalf and in your best interests.

Nonetheless, they should be someone who will also kindly yet bluntly challenge your work. But, if you can’t share challenging ethical situations with your supervisor, it will be difficult for you to develop as an ethical therapist.

Rethink Definitions of Boundary Crossings

We all know the obvious boundary violations. For example, we know not to engage in intimate relationships and barter with clients. However, there are subtle boundary crossings we tend to miss.

Consider how this can roll down hill very quickly. The client begins work. After several months they become disgruntled with their boss who is your friend who gave you the “hook-up” on the job. At this point a breach has occurred. The client further becomes upset with you for connecting them with a job where they have a legitimate harassment case. The client files a licensing board complaint against you for the breach and unprofessional conduct.

Do you want to avoid these types of complaints? Note the following best practices:

CEU Workshops on Boundary Management

From the above illustration it is easy to see why you can never get too much education in boundaries. Research the workshops and presenters thoroughly. It is important the information you learn is accurate and comprehensive.

Presenters/trainers should be in active clinical practice. The workshops should be empowering! You shouldn’t leave with your head spinning feeling more confused and frightened.

Understand There is Always a Power Differential

Even though client relationships can be casual and relaxed, your client idealizes you. It may not be apparent, but clients hang on your every word and see you as the expert. Therefore, clients can be injured easily.

Choose your words carefully and check in with them to confirm that what you intended to convey is what they heard.

Peer Relationships That Are Friendships.

Perhaps the best way to achieve this is to carefully screen and select practice partners and office mates. Having a trusted peer on-site is invaluable.

Working through your ethical dilemmas often requires a non-judgmental third party and the bond of friendship can facilitate this.

Personal Psychotherapy

It is very difficult to effectively practice psychotherapy if you have not been a client in therapy. Personal therapy compliments supervision. It also helps you recognize projections and transference/countertransference. Further, your supervisor will likely confront you when they believe that personal issues are impacting your work and you need to be able to respond to your supervisor.

Putting it all together

Now you can develop a personal system to ensure good license hygiene.

1) On even numbered years, you are required to complete 35 hours of continuing education. Take plenty of ethics courses especially boundaries. 10 hours is good. Choose topics that will help correct weak areas of your practice. Approved ethics courses can be used to fulfill all of your board CEU requirements. You can the round out our requirements with elective workshops.

2) As you encounter ethical dilemmas, you have at least two resources for help: your trusted supervisor and trusted peers. Through CE training you will have skills to interact in an educated manner with your trusted peers.

3) Incorporating and sharing your personal psychotherapy can be very helpful for your development. **More often than not, struggles with a client are related to personal issues and not sheer lack of clinical skills.**

Closing Comments

I have tried to thoroughly cover ethics of LPC licensure training and supervision. If you have questions about this article, feel free to contact me by phone. If it is simple question, I am happy to offer a free phone consultation. Best wishes wherever you are in your career as a therapist!

Find a Clinical Supervisor in GA for LPC


Finding a Clinical Supervisor in GA

How do I find a LPC clinical supervisor in Georgia? How do I choose a supervisor that is a good match? How can I ensure I find the best supervisor for me?

These are questions every new therapist confronts in their mental health clinical work. I provide local and distance clinical supervision for LPC and consultation with fully licensed clinicians who are facing difficult ethical dilemmas.

Basic Essential Supervision Skills

While on the Composite Board, for six months in addition to the LPC complaints, I handled all of the Social Worker and Marriage and Family Therapist consumer complaints. As an Atlanta CPCS and national ACS Supervisor I have been exposed to many clinical, legal, and ethics issues related to practicing psychotherapy.

Your supervisor should be able to help you work through ethical dilemmas. They should also know how to distinguish ethics from legal matters and refer you to an attorney when needed. Learn to avoid incompetent supervisors.

Even though you may not work in a psychiatric hospital or residential treatment program, your supervisor should have broad experience in clinical mental health.

These areas of competence include severe depression and suicide, addiction, traumatic stress–all of those areas that can be frightening for new therapists.

Your clinical supervisor should be able to work confidently and with conviction on complex clinical issues.

Supervisors Legal/ Ethical Concerns

Supervision is defined in Georgia Composite Board rules as, ” to promote the growth and development of the practitioner’s clinical skills.” My LAPC supervision emphasizes mutual trust and confidence as the foundation of the supervisory relationship. But I also interview and screen LAPC supervisees carefully. In contrast, many supervisors are less able to act with support and conviction within the supervisory experience.

Fearful that the supervisee is going to harm a client. Fear that the supervisor is going to report perceived ethical misconduct. Many are reluctant to provide Georgia licensing supervision for the above reasons.

find a clinical supervisor in ga for lpc

It is important to know that as an APC / LAPC, you have been issued a license to practice psychotherapy. You are ultimately responsible for that license.

Be teachable, be willing to learn.

If you are willing to be mentored, your supervisor should serve as a mentor. Decisions by the Georgia composite licensing board are often predicated on unremorseful actions– if you don’t believe you did anything unethical how can you be remorseful?

Whereas therapist ethics is not simple, approaching ethics in supervision from this simple framework allows both parties to focus on what is most important: producing a competent therapist who is not a risk to the public or liability to the profession.

Supervisor Role

From the Composite Board Rules, definition of Supervision: “The purpose of supervision is to promote the development of the practitioner’s clinical skills.

Supervision may include, without being limited to, the review of case presentations, audiotapes, videotapes, and direct observation of the practitioner’s clinical skills. Supervision does not require the supervisor to be present at the work site with the supervisee.”

Your Role

From Composite Board rules, “The practice of professional counseling means practice in that specialty which utilizes counseling and psychotherapy to evaluate and treat emotional and mental problems and conditions, whether cognitive, behavioral, or affective.”

As a supervisee, since you are under directed experience (are under direction from a boss at a site that is your formal licensing work site.) it is your responsibility to work towards learning and being teachable and open to honest input.

I believe that with my guidance you have the ability to be a great therapist. Supervision should be enjoyable and rewarding. Counseling is hazardous and stressful–your supervision shouldn’t be. I employ a moderately structured approach that will allow you to grow, take risks, make mistakes yet also have the safety net I will provide as an experienced and authoritative therapist. A Good LPC supervisor should guide you with confidence and assist with making the difficult decisions that every new therapist faces.

Three Key Factors in Clinical Supervision

Professional Hazards

Ironically, the greatest hazards for therapists are connected with our urge to help others. Insufficient self-care, excessive empathy leading to boundary crossings. When the lines between help and rescue become blurred. Boundary crossings are on of the greatest hazards of doing this work.

It can blind-side even experienced therapists. When a therapist whose top priority is maintaining public trust connects with a supervisor who understands these hazards, you have a winning combination for creating a good therapist.

There are also external factors that impede the process of becoming a good therapist. Many new therapists are working in public settings. Working for mental health companies that are contracted by state entities. Or working for large healthcare companies. All are operating on tight budgets (I have worked in all of these settings prior to private practice). You may need help finding a job as a counselor.

This can result in:

  • Lack of employer support for therapist training.
  • List Element
  • The boss must report on their employee’s job performance and…
  • …”good job performance” is subjective.

Those are less than ideal circumstances for learning. An employer-appointed supervisor has responsibilities that WILL interfere with therapist development. A Director at your Directed Experience site is required to referee employer/employee and human resource issues. If they are also your clinical Supervisor you may be at risk of the supervisor declining to sign your licensing application Supervision paperwork.

It is important you have a clear written contract with your supervisor. Under Georgia board rules you may also obtain distance supervision.

Supervisor Bias

Most Georgia therapists practice ethically. But these inaccuracies can make the prospect of becoming a therapist discouraging when interviewing with a particular supervisor. Making mistakes is part of learning.

Those of us experienced as mental health practitioners had to start somewhere. We all had to encounter our first client with schizophrenia. Our first seductive client.

As long as you are capable of following the therapist oath: ‘first, do no harm’, your relationship with your supervisor should be one of mutual trust.

My Model of Supervision

Balancing Low Structure and High Structure in Supervision

There are many models of supervision. A key concept is high versus low structure. Each has their advantages. The advantages of high structure in supervision is that by erring on the side of caution, the supervisor has greater day to day control of the therapist’s activities. The advantages of low structure are ability to take risk and make decisions on their own.

find a clinical supervisor in georgia

This pie chart describes the role of structure in my supervision. Whereas there is a structure in evaluation and feedback, planned interventions and gatekeeping has a minor role. The struggle of most new therapists is problem solving and self confidence and moderate structure promotes development in those areas.

The Synthesis of Authority and Mentoring

My supervision is a hybrid of mentoring and authority. Authority doesn’t refer to claiming to know everything. In fact, expect that you will have knowledge in areas I do not. It is referred to as sapiential authority and involves asserting conviction in helping you because I am experienced in clinical aspects of psychotherapy and ethics.

Through experience, I can often provide clarity on clinical and ethical dilemmas efficiently. And quickly. I have managed many high risk clients and can make this much less overwhelming for you. I combine this with a mentoring and coaching approach. Directed experience under supervision need not be frightening.

Psychotherapeutic Intervention

All of us have “blind spots”. Whether in our personal lives or as professionals. Sometimes we struggle to find a solution to an ethical dilemma or a clinical intervention with a client. Often we learn it is because we have a blind spot. This partly owes to countertransference. As therapists, we are mindful of countertransference as an obstacle- or facilitator- of change with our clients. In a supervisory relationship, we apply the same principles to promote professional growth within our supervisees.

Psychotherapeutic techniques therefore are an important role in therapist’ development. Not psychotherapy per se, but applying the principles of it.


The manner of evaluation I employ is as much critique as a tool in itself for helping you become a better and more confident therapist. I will provide you both formal written and real-time verbal evaluation.

How much can I expect to pay for LPC supervision?

Or simply, how much is clinical supervision to get my LPC license. Fees for private individual supervision in the Atlanta area range from $100- $150 per supervision session.

Some may charge more, some less but these are good approximations. My fees range from $90-$120. I also provide LPC telesupervision / LPC distance supervision.


I have described my perspective on ethics and supervision and my approach to training and developing licensees. It is similar to how I work with clients: you have the capacity to develop professionally and solve problems with my assistance. Obtaining an independent private supervisor lays the groundwork for the trust that is necessary when learning to become a good therapist.

If you wish, you can view my available openings and call to schedule a consultation for Georgia LPC clinical supervision.

LPC Jobs in Georgia That Are Board Approved

Finding LPC Jobs in Georgia That Are Board Approved

Finding a counseling job that is acceptable for obtaining your license is becoming increasingly difficult. State licensing boards are getting more and more stringent in their acceptable psychotherapist practice settings. These efforts are a precaution for ensuring applicants are properly trained.

You can lose valuable time – sometimes years – if you don’t select a job that will be eligible for licensure in GA. You may have concluded there are no LPC jobs in Georgia that are board approved particularly if you do not have an associate license.

Whereas there are no guarantees your work setting will be approved, you can maximize your chances. Here are guidelines and job board for LPCs :

find lpc jobs georgia

Avoid Work Settings That Resemble Independent Practice 

You have been hired as an independent contractor at “We Are Great Counselors, LLC.” This LLC is owned and operated solely by Bobby Sue an LPC. There are three counselors including yourself – all APC (associate professional counselors). Bobby Sue provides Supervision to some of you. You each have an office and everyone does the same thing: sees their psychotherapy clients and leaves for the day.

There is no formal system in which Bobby Sue provides oversight to any of the APC’s either as a Director or Supervisor. ( Make sure you understand definitions of a Director, Supervisor, Directed Experience and so on.

This is a risky work setting. Work within this type of arrangement at your own peril. First, as a new counselor you will not receive high quality and affordable LPC supervision or telesupervision needed to develop competence. You may feel lost and lack confidence in your clinical practice.

Second, the Directed Experience could be determined as ineligible. “But that’s the only work I can find so…

“…it leaves me with few choices.”

You do not need to work in an unsupportive work setting. In fact, a site with too much structure can be hazardous. Some organizations that receive may require you to choose between employer policies and what you know to be ethical practice. Note the following middle ground: 

Solid Clinical Experience and Directed Experience Under Supervision

One of the most widely available opportunities are private psychiatric practices. These can be great opportunities. This work experience is often acceptable if it includes the following components:

System for emergency intervention because a psychiatrist or advanced practice nurse is on site.

Fully licensed counselors. social workers or marriage and family therapists and TRUE supervision.

Use of DSM V and gaining a working knowledge of diagnosis the spectrum of mental disorders.

Systematic oversight and a system that understands and supports professional practice issues.


Be sure your work setting has systems that provide strong and supportive structure. A full directed experience site with comprehensive and competent supervision. 

  • System for emergency intervention because a psychiatrist or advanced practice nurse is on site.
  • checkFully licensed counselors. social workers or marriage and family therapists and TRUE supervision.
  • Use of DSM V and gaining a working knowledge of diagnosis the spectrum of mental disorders.
  • Systematic oversight and a system that understands and supports professional practice issues.